This book analyses the interface between medicine and colonial society through the lens of gender. The work traces the growth of hospital medicine in nineteenth century Bengal and shows how it created a space-albeit small-for providing western health care to female patients. It observes that, unlike in the colonial setup, before the advent of hospital medicine women were treated mostly by female practitioners of indigenous therapies who had commendable skill as practitioners. The book also explores the linkages of growth of medical education for women and the role of the Brahmo Samaj in this process. The manuscript tackles several crucial questions including those of racial discrimination, reproductive health practices, sexual health, famines and mortality, and the role of women’s agencies and other organizations in popularizing western medicine and healthcare.